Parenthetical Citation Turabian Style Bibliography

Why we use parenthetical / in-text citations

Researchers place brief parenthetical descriptions to acknowledge which parts of their paper reference particular sources. Generally, you want to provide the last name of the author and the specific page numbers of the source. If such information is already given in the body of the sentence, then exclude it from the parenthetical citation.

Place the parenthetical citation where there is a pause in the sentence – normally before the end of a sentence or a comma. The in-text citation will differ depending on how much information you provide within the sentence.

Example with author’s name in text:

Johnson argues this point (12-13).

or

This point had already been argued (Johnson 12-13).


Citing sources with more than one author

If you use sources with the same author surnames, then include a first name initial. If the two sources have authors with the same initials, then include their full names:[su_spacer]

Example:

(J. Johnson 12-13).

or

(John Johnson 12-13).

If there are two or three authors of the source, include their last names in the order they appear on the source:

Example:

(Smith, Wollensky, and Johnson 45).

If there are more than three authors, you can cite all the authors with their last name, or you can cite the first author followed by “et al.” Follow what is shown the works cited list.

Example:

(Smith et al. 45).


Citing sources without an author

Some sources do not have authors or contributors – for instance, when you cite some websites. Instead, refer to the name of the source in your parenthetical citation in place of the author. Shorten / abbreviate the name of the source but ensure that your reader can easily identify it in your works cited (abbreviate the title starting with the same word in which it is alphabetized). Punctuate with quotations or italicize as you would in its works cited form (a book is italicized; an article is in quotes).

Examples:

Double agents are still widely in use (Spies 12-15, 17).

With prices of energy at new highs, bikes have been increasingly used (“Alternative Transportation” 89).


Citing part of a work

When citing a specific part of a work, provide the relevant page or section identifier. This can include specific pages, sections, paragraphs or volumes. When the identifier is preceded by an abbreviation or word, place a comma between the identifier and the source reference.


Part of a multivolume work

Example:

It is arguably the most innovative period in history (Webster, vol 4).


Chapter within a book (if no specific numbers can be referenced)

Example:

The electoral college undermines democracy (Sanders, “Government Injustices”).


Article in a periodical

Example:

Allen claims there is an inverse correlation between higher taxes and patriotic feelings worldwide (B2).

When citing a specific page(s) of a multivolume work, precede the page number by the volume number and a colon. Do not separate by a comma.

It was arguably the most innovative period in history (Webster 4:12-15).

Use “par.” or “pars.” when referring to specific paragraphs.

The marketing dollars of big studio films has overshadowed good indie movies (Anderson, pars. 12-34).


Citing group or corporate authors

In your parenthetical citation, cite a corporate author like you would a normal author. Preferably, incorporate the corporate author in your text instead of the parenthetical citation.

Example:

Facial transplants pose significant risk to the autoimmune system (American Medical Association 12-43).

As noted by the American Medical Association, facial transplants pose significant risk to the autoimmune system (12-43).


Citing an entire source

When citing an entire work, there are no specific page numbers to refer to. Therefore it is preferable to refer to the source within the text itself with either the author or the title of the source.

Example:

Hartford suggests the Internet provides more distractions than it does information.


Citing multiple works by the same author

If you reference more than one source by the same author, distinguish the parenthetical citations by including the name of the source. Use a comma to separate the author from the source.

Example:

Wars can be economic catalysts (Friedman, World 77-80).

Industrialized nations are better equipped to rebound from recessions (Friedman, “High Tides” 56).


Citing indirect sources

When an original source is unavailable, then cite the secondhand source – for instance, a lecture in a conference proceedings. When quoting or paraphrasing a quote, write “qtd. in” before the author and pages.

Example:

John Murray calls Tim Smith “interesting but egotistical” (qtd. in Jesrani 34).


Citing literary / classic and religious works

For works such as novels, plays and other classic works, it’s helpful to provide further identifying information along with the page information. Do this by adding a semicolon and then the identifying information following the page number.

Example:

(Tolstoy 5; pt. 2, ch. 3).

When citing classic poems and plays, replace page numbers with division numbers (part, book, scene, act). The below refers to book 10 line 5. Bear in mind the divisions and the way they are written can vary by source.

Example:

Fear plays a role in Homer’s Odyssey (10.5).

The title of books in the Bible and other famous literary works should be abbreviated.

(New Jerusalem Bible, Gen. 2.6-9).


Placing parenthetical citations in direct quotations

When directly quoting a source, place the parenthetical citation after the quote.

Example:

Sanders explains that economic woes are due to “the mortgage crisis and poor risk assessment” (20).

Place the parenthetical citation at the end of an indented quotation. There should be no period after the parenthetical citation. The last sentence of the indented quote should look like:

Example:

It’s unclear whether multilateral tariffs are disruptive to bilateral talks. (Evert 30-31)


Citing online sources

Generally, follow the same principals of parenthetical citations to cite online sources. Refer to the author, and if possible, a permanent identifier that would be the same for any reader.

Examples:

The economy will rebound with the new monetary policies (Smith).

Solar power will become the primary source of energy (Williams 2).


Citing online sources with no author

If there is no author, use the title that begins the citation, either the article or website title. Be sure it also takes the same formatting, i.e. articles are in quotes and website titles are italicized. Shorten / abbreviate the name of the source but ensure that your reader can easily identify it in your works cited (abbreviate the title starting with the same word in which it is alphabetized).

Examples:

Elephants are thought to be one of the smartest mammals (“Smart Elephants”).

Nineteen men and women were convicted (Salem Witchcraft Trials).

Note: Ideally, when citing online sources, try to reference the source within your sentence, with either the author or the title to avoid writing a parenthetical citation.


Where to put the parenthetical citations:

  • Place parenthetical citations at the end of the sentence you are paraphrasing and quoting. For example: The destruction of the argentine is due to many socioeconomic factors (Taylor 33).
  • Even when quoting, place the parenthetical citations after the quotations.

Example:

“Mamma always said stupid is as stupid does” (Gump 89).


Long quotes:

When quoting four lines or more, indent every line you are quoting by one inch (or 10 spaces) and do not use quotes.

Example:

The use of nuclear weapons in today’s society is strikingly alarming. Though the United States is the only country to employ it in the past, they are at the same time the country that condemns its use the most. While this may seem hypocritical, is it the most proper action for the United States to make as the global leader. (Taparia 9)


Notes-Bibliography Style: Sample Citations

The following examples illustrate citations using notes-bibliography style. Examples of notes are followed by shortened versions of citations to the same source. For more details and many more examples, see chapters 16 and 17 of Turabian. For examples of the same citations using the author-date system, click on the Author-Date tab above.

Book

One author

1. Malcolm Gladwell, The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference (Boston: Little, Brown, 2000), 64-65.

2. Gladwell, Tipping Point, 71.

Gladwell, Malcolm. The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. Boston: Little, Brown, 2000.

Two or more authors

1. Peter Morey and Amina Yaqin, Framing Muslims: Stereotyping and Representation after 9/11 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011), 52.

2. Morey and Yaqin, Framing Muslims, 60-61.

Morey, Peter, and Amina Yaqin. Framing Muslims: Stereotyping and Representation after 9/11. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011.

For four or more authors, list all of the authors in the bibliography; in the note, list only the first author, followed by "et al."("and others"):

1. Jay M. Bernstein et al., Art and Aesthetics after Adorno (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010), 276.

2. Bernstein et al., Art and Aesthetics, 18.

Bernstein, Jay M., Claudia Brodsky, Anthony J. Cascardi, Thierry de Duve, Ales Erjavec, Robert Kaufman, and Fred Rush. Art and Aesthetics after Adorno. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010.

Editor or translator instead of author

1. Richmond Lattimore, trans., The Iliad of Homer (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951), 91-92.

2. Lattimore, Iliad, 24.

Lattimore, Richmond, trans. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951.

Editor or translator in addition to author

1. Jane Austen, Persuasion: An Annotated Edition, ed. Robert Morrison (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2011), 311-12.

2. Austen, Persuasion, 315.

Austen, Jane. Persuasion: An Annotated Edition. Edited by Robert Morrison. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2011.

Chapter or other part of a book

1. Angeles Ramirez, "Muslim Women in the Spanish Press: The Persistence of Subaltern Images," in Muslim Women in War and Crisis: Representation and Reality, ed. Faegheh Shirazi (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2010), 231.

2. Ramirez, "Muslim Women," 239-40.

Ramirez, angeles. "Muslim Women in the Spanish Press: The Persistence of Subaltern Images." In Muslim Women in War and Crisis: Representation and Reality, edited by Faegheh Shirazi, 227-44. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2010.

Preface, foreword, introduction, or similar part of a book

1. William Cronon, foreword to The Republic of Nature, by Mark Fiege (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2012), ix.

2. Cronon, foreword, x-xi.

Cronon, William. Foreword to The Republic of Nature, by Mark Fiege, ix-xii. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2012.

Book published electronically

If a book is available in more than one format, cite the version you consulted. For books consulted online, include an access date and a URL. If you consulted the book in a library or commercial database, you may give the name of the database instead of a URL. If no fixed page numbers are available, you can include a section title or a chapter or other number.

1. Isabel Wilkerson, The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America's Great Migration (New York: Vintage, 2010), 183-84, Kindle.

2. Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds., The Founders' Constitution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), chap. 10, doc. 19, accessed October 15, 2011, http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.

3. Joseph P. Quinlan, The Last Economic Superpower: The Retreat of Globalization, the End of American Dominance, and What We Can Do about It (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010), 211, accessed December 8, 2012, ProQuest Ebrary.

4. Wilkerson, Warmth of Other Suns, 401.

5. Kurland and Lerner, Founders' Constitution.

6. Quinlan, Last Economic Superpower, 88.

Wilkerson, Isabel. The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America's Great Migration. New York: Vintage, 2010. Kindle.

Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders' Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. Accessed October 15, 2011. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.

Quinlan, Joseph P. The Last Economic Superpower: The Retreat of Globalization, the End of American Dominance, and What We Can Do about It. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010. Accessed December 8, 2012. ProQuest Ebrary.

Journal article

In a note, list the specific page numbers consulted, if any. In the bibliography, list the page range for the whole article.

Article in a print journal

1. Alexandra Bogren, "Gender and Alcohol: The Swedish Press Debate," Journal of Gender Studies 20, no. 2 (June 2011): 156.

2. Bogren, "Gender and Alcohol," 157.

Bogren, Alexandra. "Gender and Alcohol: The Swedish Press Debate." Journal of Gender Studies 20, no. 2 (June 2011): 155-69.

Article in an online journal

For a journal article consulted online, include an access date and a URL. For articles that include a DOI, form the URL by appending the DOI to http://dx.doi.org/ rather than using the URL in your address bar. The DOI for the article in the Brown example below is 10.1086/660696. If you consulted the article in a library or commercial database, you may give the name of the database instead.

1. Campbell Brown, "Consequentialize This," Ethics 121, no. 4 (July 2011): 752, accessed December 1, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/660696.

2. Anastacia Kurylo, "Linsanity: The Construction of (Asian) Identity in an Online New York Knicks Basketball Forum," China Media Research 8, no. 4 (October 2012): 16, accessed March 9, 2013, Academic OneFile.

3. Brown, "Consequentialize This," 761.

4. Kurylo, "Linsanity," 18-19.

Brown, Campbell. "Consequentialize This." Ethics 121, no. 4 (July 2011): 749-71. Accessed December 1, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/660696.

Kurylo, Anastacia. "Linsanity: The Construction of (Asian) Identity in an Online New York Knicks Basketball Forum." China Media Research 8, no. 4 (October 2012): 15-28. Accessed March 9, 2013. Academic OneFile.

Magazine article

1. Jill Lepore, "Dickens in Eden," New Yorker, August 29, 2011, 52.

2. Lepore, "Dickens in Eden," 54-55.

Lepore, Jill. "Dickens in Eden." New Yorker, August 29, 2011.

Newspaper article

Newspaper articles may be cited in running text ("As Elisabeth Bumiller and Thom Shanker noted in a New York Times article on January 23, 2013, . . .") instead of in a note, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.

1. Elisabeth Bumiller and Thom Shanker, "Pentagon Lifts Ban on Women in Combat," New York Times, January 23, 2013, accessed January 24, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/24/us/pentagon-says-it-is-lifting-ban-on-women-in-combat.html.

2. Bumiller and Shanker, "Pentagon Lifts Ban."

Bumiller, Elisabeth, and Thom Shanker. "Pentagon Lifts Ban on Women in Combat." New York Times, January 23, 2013. Accessed January 24, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/24/us/pentagon-says-it-is-lifting-ban-on-women-in-combat.html.

Book review

1. Joel Mokyr, review of Natural Experiments of History, ed. Jared Diamond and James A. Robinson, American Historical Review 116, no. 3 (June 2011): 754, accessed December 9, 2011, http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/ahr.116.3.752.

2. Mokyr, review of Natural Experiments of History,752.

Mokyr, Joel. Review of Natural Experiments of History, edited by Jared Diamond and James A. Robinson. American Historical Review 116, no. 3 (June 2011): 752-55. Accessed December 9, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/ahr.116.3.752.

Thesis or dissertation

1. Dana S. Levin, "Let's Talk about Sex . . . Education: Exploring Youth Perspectives, Implicit Messages, and Unexamined Implications of Sex Education in Schools" (PhD diss., University of Michigan, 2010), 101-2.

2. Levin, "Let's Talk about Sex," 98.

Levin, Dana S. "Let's Talk about Sex . . . Education: Exploring Youth Perspectives, Implicit Messages, and Unexamined Implications of Sex Education in Schools." PhD diss., University of Michigan, 2010.

Paper presented at a meeting or conference

1. Rachel Adelman, " 'Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On': God's Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition" (paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21-24, 2009).

2. Adelman, "Such Stuff as Dreams."

Adelman, Rachel. " 'Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On': God's Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition." Paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21-24, 2009.

Website

A citation to website content can often be limited to a mention in the text or in a note ("As of July 27, 2012, Google's privacy policy had been updated to include . . ."). If a more formal citation is desired, it may be styled as in the examples below. Because such content is subject to change, include an access date and, if available, a date that the site was last modified.

1. "Privacy Policy," Google Policies & Principles, last modified July 27, 2012, accessed January 3, 2013, http://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.

2. Google, "Privacy Policy."

Google. "Privacy Policy." Google Policies & Principles. Last modified July 27, 2012. Accessed January 3, 2013. http://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.

Blog entry or comment

Blog entries or comments may be cited in running text ("In a comment posted to The Becker-Posner Blog on February 16, 2012, . . .") instead of in a note, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.

1. Gary Becker, "Is Capitalism in Crisis?," The Becker-Posner Blog, February 12, 2012, accessed February 16, 2012, http://www.becker-posner-blog.com/2012/02/is-capitalism-in-crisis-becker.html.

2. Becker, "Is Capitalism in Crisis?"

Becker, Gary. "Is Capitalism in Crisis?" The Becker-Posner Blog, February 12, 2012. Accessed February 16, 2012. http://www.becker-posner-blog.com/2012/02/is-capitalism-in-crisis-becker.html.

E-mail or text message

E-mail and text messages may be cited in running text ("In a text message to the author on July 21, 2012, John Doe revealed . . .") instead of in a note, and they are rarely listed in a bibliography. The following example shows the more formal version of a note.

1. John Doe, e-mail message to author, July 21, 2012.

Comment posted on a social networking service

Like e-mail and text messages, comments posted on a social networking service may be cited in running text ("In a message posted to her Twitter account on August 25, 2011, . . .") instead of in a note, and they are rarely listed in a bibliography. The following example shows the more formal version of a note.

1. Sarah Palin, Twitter post, August 25, 2011 (10:23 p.m.), accessed September 4, 2011, http://twitter.com/sarahpalinusa.

Author-Date Style: Sample Citations

The following examples illustrate citations using author-date style. Each example of a reference list entry is accompanied by an example of a corresponding parenthetical citation in the text. For more details and many more examples, see chapters 18 and 19 of Turabian. For examples of the same citations using the notes-bibliography system, click on the Notes-Bibliography tab above.

Book

One author

Gladwell, Malcolm. 2000. The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. Boston: Little, Brown.

Two or more authors

Morey, Peter, and Amina Yaqin. 2011. Framing Muslims: Stereotyping and Representation after 9/11. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

(Morey and Yaqin 2011, 52)

For four or more authors, list all of the authors in the reference list; in the text, list only the first author, followed by "et al." ("and others"):

Bernstein, Jay M., Claudia Brodsky, Anthony J. Cascardi, Thierry de Duve, Ales Erjavec, Robert Kaufman, and Fred Rush. 2010. Art and Aesthetics after Adorno. Berkeley: University of California Press.

(Bernstein et al. 2010, 276)

Editor or translator instead of author

Lattimore, Richmond, trans. 1951. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Editor or translator in addition to author

Austen, Jane. 2011. Persuasion: An Annotated Edition. Edited by Robert Morrison. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Chapter or other part of a book

Ramirez, Angeles. 2010. "Muslim Women in the Spanish Press: The Persistence of Subaltern Images." In Muslim Women in War and Crisis: Representation and Reality, edited by Faegheh Shirazi, 227-44. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Preface, foreword, introduction, or similar part of a book

Cronon, William. 2012. Foreword to The Republic of Nature, by Mark Fiege, ix-xii. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Book published electronically

If a book is available in more than one format, cite the version you consulted. For books consulted online, include an access date and a URL. If you consulted the book in a library or commercial database, you may give the name of the database instead of a URL. If no fixed page numbers are available, you can include a section title or a chapter or other number.

Wilkerson, Isabel. 2010. The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America's Great Migration. New York: Vintage. Kindle.

Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. 1987. The Founders' Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Accessed October 15, 2011. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.

Quinlan, Joseph P. 2010. The Last Economic Superpower: The Retreat of Globalization, the End of American Dominance, and What We Can Do about It. New York: McGraw-Hill. Accessed December 8, 2012. ProQuest Ebrary.

(Wilkerson 2010, 183-84)

(Kurland and Lerner 1987, chap. 10, doc. 19)

(Quinlan 2010, 211)

Journal article

In the text, list the specific page numbers consulted, if any. In the reference list entry, list the page range for the whole article.

Article in a print journal

Bogren, Alexandra. 2011. "Gender and Alcohol: The Swedish Press Debate." Journal of Gender Studies 20, no. 2 (June): 155-69.

Article in an online journal

For a journal article consulted online, include an access date and a URL. For articles that include a DOI, form the URL by appending the DOI to http://dx.doi.org/ rather than using the URL in your address bar. The DOI for the article in the Brown example below is 10.1086/660696. If you consulted the article in a library or commercial database, you may give the name of the database instead.

Brown, Campbell. 2011. "Consequentialize This." Ethics 121, no. 4 (July): 749-71. Accessed December 1, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/660696.

Kurylo, Anastacia. 2012. "Linsanity: The Construction of (Asian) Identity in an Online New York Knicks Basketball Forum." China Media Research 8, no. 4 (October): 15-28. Accessed March 9, 2013. Academic OneFile.

(Brown 2011, 752)

(Kurylo 2012, 16)

Magazine article

Lepore, Jill. 2011. "Dickens in Eden." New Yorker, August 29.

Newspaper article

Newspaper articles may be cited in running text ("As Elisabeth Bumiller and Thom Shanker noted in a New York Times article on January 23, 2013, . . ."), and they are commonly omitted from a reference list. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.

Bumiller, Elisabeth, and Thom Shanker. 2013. "Pentagon Lifts Ban on Women in Combat." New York Times, January 23. Accessed January 24, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/24/us/pentagon-says-it-is-lifting-ban-on-women-in-combat.html.

(Bumiller and Shanker 2013)

Book review

Mokyr, Joel. 2011. Review of Natural Experiments of History, edited by Jared Diamond and James A. Robinson. American Historical Review 116, no. 3 (June): 752-55. Accessed December 9, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/ahr.116.3.752.

Thesis or dissertation

Levin, Dana S. 2010. "Let's Talk about Sex . . . Education: Exploring Youth Perspectives, Implicit Messages, and Unexamined Implications of Sex Education in Schools." PhD diss., University of Michigan.

Paper presented at a meeting or conference

Adelman, Rachel. 2009. " 'Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On': God's Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition." Paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21-24.

Website

A citation to website content can often be limited to a mention in the text ("As of July 27, 2012, Google's privacy policy had been updated to include . . ."). If a more formal citation is desired, it may be styled as in the examples below. Because such content is subject to change, include an access date and, if available, a date that the site was last modified. If there is no date listed on the site, use the access date as the primary date in the citation.

Google. 2012. "Privacy Policy." Google Policies & Principles. Last modified July 27. Accessed January 3, 2013. http://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.

Blog entry or comment

Blog entries or comments may be cited in running text ("In a comment posted to The Becker-Posner Blog on February 16, 2012, . . ."), and they are commonly omitted from a reference list. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations.

Becker, Gary. 2012. "Is Capitalism in Crisis?" The Becker-Posner Blog, February 12. Accessed February 16, 2012. http://www.becker-posner-blog.com/2012/02/is-capitalism-in-crisis-becker.html.

E-mail or text message

E-mail and text messages may be cited in running text ("In a text message to the author on July 21, 2012, John Doe revealed . ") instead of in parentheses, and they are rarely listed in a reference list. The following example shows a more formal parenthetical citation.

(John Doe, e-mail message to author, July 21, 2012)

Comment posted on a social networking service

Like e-mail and text messages, comments posted on a social networking service may be cited in running text ("In a message posted to her Twitter account on August 25, 2011, . . .") instead of in parentheses, and they are rarely listed in a reference list. The following example shows a more formal parenthetical citation.

(Sarah Palin, Twitter post, August 25, 2011 [10:23 p.m.], accessed September 4, 2011, http://twitter.com/sarahpalinusa)

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