|Other names |
3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||161.47 g/mol (anhydrous)|
179.47 g/mol (monohydrate)
287.53 g/mol (heptahydrate)
|Density||3.54 g/cm3 (anhydrous)|
2.072 g/cm3 (hexahydrate)
|Melting point||680 °C (1,256 °F; 953 K) decomposes (anhydrous)|
100 °C (heptahydrate)
70 °C, decomposes (hexahydrate)
|Boiling point||740 °C (1,360 °F; 1,010 K) (anhydrous)|
280 °C, decomposes (heptahydrate)
Solubility in water
|57.7 g/100 mL, anhydrous (20 °C) (In aqueous solutions with a pH < 5)|
Magnetic susceptibility (χ)
Refractive index (nD)
|1.658 (anhydrous), 1.4357 (heptahydrate)|
Std enthalpy of
|Safety data sheet||ICSC 1698|
EU classification (DSD) (outdated)
Dangerous for the environment (N)
|R-phrases(outdated)||R22, R41, R50/53|
|S-phrases(outdated)||(S2), S22, S26, S39, S46, S60, S61|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|N verify (what is YN ?)|
Zinc sulfate is an inorganic compound and dietary supplement. As a supplement it is used to treat zinc deficiency and to prevent the condition in those at high risk. Side effects of excess supplementation may include abdominal pain, vomiting, headache, and tiredness.
It has the formulaZnSO4 as well as any of three hydrates. It was historically known as "white vitriol". All of the various forms are colourless solids. The heptahydrate form is commonly encountered.
Main article: Zinc sulfate (medical use)
In medicine it is used together with oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and an astringent.
The hydrates, especially the heptahydrate, are the primary forms used commercially. The main application is as a coagulant in the production of rayon. It is also a precursor to the pigment lithopone.
It is also used as an electrolyte for zinc electroplating, as a mordant in dyeing, and as a preservative for skins and leather.
Zinc sulfate is used to supply zinc in animal feeds, fertilizers, toothpaste, and agricultural sprays. Zinc sulfate, like many zinc compounds, can be used to control moss growth on roofs.
Zinc sulfate can be used to supplement zinc in the brewing process. Zinc is a necessary nutrient for optimal yeast health and performance, although it is not necessary for low-gravity beers as the grains commonly used in brewing already provide adequate zinc. It is a more common practice when pushing yeast to their limit by increasing alcohol content beyond their comfort zone. Before modern stainless steel,brew Kettles,fermenting vessels and after wood, zinc was slowly leached by the use of copper kettles. A modern copper immersion chiller is speculated to provide trace elements of zinc; thus care must be taken when adding supplemental zinc so as not to cause excess. Side effects include "...increased acetaldehyde and fusel alcohol production due to high yeast growth when zinc concentrations exceed 5 ppm. Excess zinc can also cause soapy or goaty flavors." 
Zinc sulfate powder is an eye irritant. Ingestion of trace amounts is considered safe, and zinc sulfate is added to animal feed as a source of essential zinc, at rates of up to several hundred milligrams per kilogram of feed. Excess ingestion results in acute stomach distress, with nausea and vomiting appearing at 2–8 mg/Kg of body weight.
Production and reactivity
Zinc sulfate is produced by treating virtually any zinc-containing material (metal, minerals, oxides) with sulfuric acid.
Specific reactions include the reaction of the metal with aqueous sulfuric acid:
- Zn + H2SO4 + 7 H2O → ZnSO4•7H2O + H2
Pharmaceutical-grade zinc sulfate is produced by treating high-purity zinc oxide with sulfuric acid:
- ZnO + H2SO4 + 6 H2O → ZnSO4•7H2O
In aqueous solution, all forms of zinc sulfate behave identically. These aqueous solutions consist of the metal aquo complex [Zn(H2O)6]2+ and SO42− ions. Barium sulfate forms when these solutions are treated with solutions of barium ions:
- ZnSO4 + BaCl2 → BaSO4 + ZnCl2
With a reduction potential of -0.76, zinc(II) reduces only with difficulty.
When heated above 680 °C, zinc sulfate decomposes into sulfur dioxide gas and zinc oxide fume, both of which are hazardous.
As a mineral, ZnSO4•7H2O is known as goslarite. Zinc sulfate occurs as several other minor minerals, such as zincmelanterite, (Zn,Cu,Fe)SO4•7H2O (structurally different from goslarite). Lower hydrates of zinc sulfate are rarely found in nature: (Zn,Fe)SO4•6H2O (bianchite), (Zn,Mg)SO4•4H2O (boyleite), and (Zn,Mn)SO4•H2O (gunningite).
- ^Lide, David R., ed. (2006). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87th ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0487-3.
- ^ abZumdahl, Steven S. (2009). Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. A23. ISBN 0-618-94690-X.
- ^British national formulary : BNF 69 (69 ed.). British Medical Association. 2015. p. 700. ISBN 9780857111562.
- ^WHO Model Formulary 2008(PDF). World Health Organization. 2009. p. 351. ISBN 9789241547659. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
- ^ abcDieter M. M. Rohe, Hans Uwe Wolf "Zinc Compounds" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2005, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a28_537
- ^"Moss on Roofs," .Community Horticultural Fact Sheet #97, Washington State University King County Extension, 
- ^"Metallurgy for Homebrewers" Brew Your Own Magazine
- ^"The Effect of Zinc on Fermentation Performance" Braukaiser blog
- ^Šillerová; et al. (2012). "Preparation of zinc enriched yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae) by cultivation with different zinc salts". Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnolgy and Food Sciences. pp. 689–695.
- ^European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), "Scientific Opinion on safety and efficacy of zinc compounds (E6) as feed additives for all animal species: Zinc sulphate monohydrate", Feb 2012 
- ^"Zinc Sulphate Zinc Sulfate MSDS Sheet of Manufacturers". Mubychem.com. 2013-05-05. Retrieved 2013-06-08.
Salts and esters of the sulfate ion
The electrolysis of copper sulphate solution and copper electrodes
1264 Words6 Pages
The electrolysis of copper sulphate solution and copper electrodes
For my GCSE Chemistry assessment I will be investigating the electrolysis of copper sulphate solution with the copper (ii) plates.
My intention for this observation is to find out how the current has an effect on the mass of copper deposited in the electrolysis of copper sulphate and copper (ii) plates.
In this investigation I will make sure that everything is as safe as possible and that there are no chances of accidents occurring.
(1) I will wear safety glasses and a lab coat to avoid any danger.
(2) I will tie my hair back, which will prevent any accidents from occurring.
(3) I will keep the area around me clear to…show more content…
(6) Copper sulphate solution- this will be used as the electrolyte
(7) Copper plates- this will be used as the cathode and anode
(8) Distilled water- this will be used for the cathode to be washed after the reaction
(9) Ethanol- this will be used to keep the copper shiny on the plates.
(10) Oven- this will be used to dry the cathode to weigh it.
(11) Wires- this will be used to join the circuit up.
(12) Weighing scale- this will be used to weigh the cathode each time.
(13) Sand Paper- this will be used to scrap off any impure copper.
When copper is extracted from the ore it is about 98% pure so electrolysis is used to make the copper more purer. Electrolysis is used in big industries to get metals purified. As they want the metals
What is electrolysis?
Electrolysis is the procedure, which is used for the electricity to decompose a compound. The substance must be in a form of liquid or molten to allow the movement of the particles. This means that the solution must be electrolyte.
In the electrolysis of cupper (ii) electrodes and copper sulphate solution, the copper ions at the anode give ions to the cathode. That means that how much the anode has lost the cathode should have gained.
The anode is positively charged ions, and the cathode are negatively charged ions. The ions in the anode are called the anions, and in the cathode they are